An extensive literature search of articles was carried out to find studies that met the following inclusion criteria:
- The studies evaluated any type of educational technology, including computers, multimedia, interactive whiteboards, and other technology, used to improve maths achievement.
- The studies involved pupils aged 5-18.
- The studies compared pupils taught in classes using a given technology-assisted maths programme to those in control classes using an alternative programme or standard methods.
- Studies could have taken place in any country, but the report had to be available in English.
- Pupils taught in classes using a given technology-assisted maths programme had to be compared to randomly-assigned or well-matched control groups.
- Pretest data had to be provided, unless studies used random assignment of at least 30 units (individuals, classes, or schools), and there were no indications of initial inequality. Studies with pretest differences of more than 50% of a standard deviation were excluded.
- The dependent measures included quantitative measures of mathematics performance,
such as standardised mathematics measures.
- Study duration had to be at least 12 weeks.
- Studies had to have at least two teachers in each treatment group to avoid possible teacher effect.
- Programmes had to be replicable in realistic school settings. Studies providing experimental classes with extraordinary amounts of assistance that could not be provided in ordinary applications were excluded.