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Empowering

Programmes with limited evidence

Limited Evidence of Effectiveness: Strong Evidence of Modest Effects

Studies meet the criteria for “moderate evidence of effectiveness” except that the weighted mean effect size is +0.10 to +0.19.

Not available in the UK

Jostens

Provides an extensive set of assessments which place pupils according to their current levels of performance. Exercises are then designed primarily to fill gaps in their skills.

Type IT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

US website: www.compasslearning.com

Limited Evidence of Effectiveness: Weak Evidence with Notable Effects

A weighted mean effect size of at least +0.20 based on one or more qualifying studies of any 12 qualifying design insufficient in number or sample size to meet the criteria for “Moderate Evidence of Effectiveness.”

Available in the UK

Early Intervention in Reading

Focuses on phonemic segmentation and blending, phonics instruction, story reading and re-reading, comprehension, and home reading. In addition to 15-20 minutes of small group teaching, pupils receive one-to-one or one-to-two tutoring from a paraprofessional 5-10 minutes daily.

Type SGT Available in UK Yes
Contact/ Website

Website: www.earlyinterventioninreading.com

Contact: ccritchley@comcast.net (Training is web-based, with monthly telephone contact for UK teachers)

Lexia

Consists of various activities that teach phonetic word-attack strategies to promote automaticity in word recognition. Pupils typically participate in 2 to 4 20-30-minute sessions a week.

Type IT Available in UK Yes
Contact/ Website

Website: www.lexiauk.co.uk

Contact: info@lexiauk.co.uk (Product training available)

Contextually-Based Vocabulary Instruction

A supplementary intervention in which pupils aged 8/9 and 10/11 receive instruction in multiple meanings of vocabulary words. The supplementary instruction takes place twice weekly for 20-30 minutes.

Type CTP Available in UK Yes
Contact/ Website

Available to purchase from: http://store.cambiumlearning.com

Contact: rnelson8@unl.edu

Reading Styles

An intervention in which children with learning disabilities are assessed on a reading style inventory and then given small group instruction matched to their favoured styles.

Type CTP Available in UK Yes
Contact/ Website

Available to purchase from: www.nrsi.com

E-mail: readingstyle@nrsi.com

Not available in the UK

Edmark

A highly-structured one-to-one tutoring programme designed to build a 150-word vocabulary in beginning readers or children with learning difficulties.

Type T-PV Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Complete contact form at: http://hmlt.hmco.com/Contact.php

Empower Reading

Designed to teach children word identification skills and decoding strategies and to promote their effective use of these strategies.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Contact: Project Co-ordinator, karen.steinbach@sickkids.ca

Lindamood Phoneme Sequence Program

A one-to-one tutoring programme with a strong phonics focus that teaches children to notice how their mouths make various sounds and relates these to letters and sound blending.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

US website: www.lindamoodbell.com/programs/lips.html

Precision Teaching

A precision teaching approach designed to help disadvantaged children with learning difficulties learn to read.

Type CTP Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

No contact information currently available.

Proactive Reading

Emphasises phonemic awareness, letter sounds, reading of decodable text, fluency, and comprehension of connected text. The teaching emphasises rapid instruction, frequent opportunities to respond, positive feedback, and immediate error correction.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

US website: www.texasreading.org/

utcrla/research/scale_up_proactive.asp

Contact: tkurz@mail.utexas.edu

Programmed Tutorial Reading

A programme in which paraprofessional tutors are given step-by-step procedures for a series of lessons that children proceed through at their own levels and rates. The curriculum focuses on word attack and comprehension skills.

Type T-PV Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

No contact information available.

Project Read

A phonetic approach to beginning reading instruction based on the Orton-Gillingham method, originally designed for tutoring dyslexic children.

Type CTP Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Website: www.projectread.com E-mail:

languagecircle@projectread.com

RAILS

Provides children aged 5-8 with an additional reading period each day, and provides teachers with extensive professional development focusing on explicit instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, comprehension, and vocabulary.

Type CTP Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

E-mail: RJS15@PSU.EDU

Read Naturally

A small group supplementary programme that focuses on building fluency among low achievers. Pupils start with a “cold read” of a story and then practice with audiotapes until they reach a fluency target.

Type CTP Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

US website: www.readnaturally.com

E-mail: info@readnaturally.com

Read, Write and Type

A computer-assisted teaching programme used to create a small group teaching intervention, in which specially trained teachers (added to school staff) work with struggling Year 2 children in groups of 3.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Website: www.talkingfingers.com

Contact: contact@talkingfingers.com

Responsive Reading

A programme in which teachers alternate among children to provide intensive scaffolding at each child’s level. A daily lesson cycle consists of fluency building, assessment, letters and words, supported reading, and supported writing.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Contact: pmathes@smu.edu

Same Age Tutoring

A dyadic reading approach in which children reading below age level are assigned to pairs with normal-progress reading partners.

Type CTP Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

Contact: Hilde.Vankeer@ugent.be

SHIP

A programme that provides 30 minutes of daily supplemental instruction to struggling readers in groups of 2-3, over a two-year period.

Type SGT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

No contact information available.

TEACH

A one-to-one tutoring programme that focuses on identifying perceptual deficits (such as delayed acquisition of spatial and temporal orientation) using an instrument called SEARCH and then provides one-to-one tutoring focused not on reading instruction but on neurological skills.

Type TT Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

No contact information available.

Voyager Passport

A commercial small group programme for struggling readers that emphasizes phonics, phonemic awareness, comprehension, vocabulary, and fluency in daily 30-40-minute sessions.

Type SG Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

US website: www.voyagerlearning.com/passport

Wallach and Wallach

An early phonetic approach for children struggling in the early years of primary school. Teaching assistants use the programme for a half a hour each day.

Type T-Para Available in UK No
Contact/ Website

No contact information available.

 

Struggling readers

What Works for Struggling Readers?

As PDF document

Educator's summary

As PDF document

As web pages

Key findings

Top-rated programmes

Programmes with limited evidence

Other programmes

Review methods

Full report (218 pages)

As PDF document