Key findings

Secondary reading

Educator's summary

As a PDF document

As web pages:
- Key findings
- Top-rated programmes
- Programmes with limited evidence
- Other programmes
- Review methods

Full report

As a PDF document (33 pages)

Instructional Process Programmes (IP)

(Changing the way the teacher teaches, eg co-operative learning)

The largest number of high-quality studies evaluated instructional process programmes, especially forms of co-operative learning (ES= +0.28 in 7 studies). Mean weighted effect size across 14 studies: +0.21. (An effect size of 0.20 to 0.40 is considered moderate).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 

(Programmes based on ICT)

Studies of ICT find minimal achievement outcomes. Mean weighted effect size across 8 studies: +0.10. (An effect size of less than 0.20 is weak).

Combined ICT and Instructional Process Programmes (ICT + IP)

(Programmes that both change how the teacher teaches, and include ICT)

Our review showed that positive effects were found for READ 180. Mean weighted effect size across 9 studies: +0.22.

Combined Curriculum and Instructional Process Programmes (Curr + IP) 

(Programmes that both change how the teacher teaches, and include innovative curricula, eg Success for All and Direct Instruction)

A randomised study of REACH found an effect size of 0.00, and the same study found an effect size of +0.17 for RISE.

* Overall, 36 experimental-control comparisons met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 used random assignment to treatments. No studies of reading curricula qualified, but there were 8 studies of ICT, 16 of instructional process programmes, 10 of combined ICT and instructional process programmes, and 2 of combined curriculum and instructional process programmes. Effect sizes were averaged across studies, weighting by sample size.