Review methods

Primary reading

Educator's summary

As a PDF document

As web pages:

Key findings
Top-rated programmes
Programmes with limited evidence
Other programmes
- Review methods

Full report

As a PDF document (186 pages)

An exhaustive search considered more than 2000 published and unpublished articles. It included those that met the following criteria:

  • Schools or classrooms using each programme had to be compared to randomly assigned or well-matched control groups.
  • Study duration had to be at least 12 weeks.
  • Outcome measures had to be assessments of the reading content being taught in all classes. Almost all are standardised tests, or state assessments.
  • The review placed particular emphasis on studies in which schools, teachers, or students were assigned at random to experimental or control groups.

The full report

The full report, from which this summary was taken, was produced by Robert E. Slavin, Johns Hopkins University/University of York, Cynthia Lake, Johns Hopkins University, Alan Cheung, Johns Hopkins University, and Susan Davis, Success for All Foundation. The report is currently submitted for publication.