Key findings

Primary reading

Educator's summary

As a PDF document

As web pages:

- Key findings
Top-rated programmes
Programmes with limited evidence
Other programmes
Review methods

Full report

As a PDF document (186 pages)

Instructional Process Programmes (IP)

(Changing the way the teacher teaches, eg co-operative learning)

Studies of programmes that provide extensive professional development to help teachers use well-specified teaching methods had relatively positive effects overall. Mean weighted effect size across 33 studies: +0.21. Particularly positive effects were found for co-operative learning (ES=+0.21 in 10 studies).

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 

(Programmes based on ICT)

Our review showed that ICT also made little difference in reading outcomes. Average effect size across 31 studies: +0.06.

Reading Curricula (Curr)

(Textbooks)

Reading curricula made little difference in reading outcomes. Average effect size across 16 studies: +0.06.

*Overall, 80 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 25 used random assignment to treatments. Effect sizes (proportion of a standard deviation by which experimental groups exceeded control groups) were averaged across studies, weighting by study sample size.