Instructional Process Programmes (IP)
(Changing the way the teacher teaches, eg co-operative learning)
Studies of programmes that provide extensive professional development to help teachers use well-specified teaching methods had relatively positive effects overall. Mean weighted effect size across 33 studies: +0.21. Particularly positive effects were found for co-operative learning (ES=+0.21 in 10 studies).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
(Programmes based on ICT)
Our review showed that ICT also made little difference in reading outcomes. Average effect size across 31 studies: +0.06.
Reading Curricula (Curr)
Reading curricula made little difference in reading outcomes. Average effect size across 16 studies: +0.06.
*Overall, 80 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 25 used random assignment to treatments. Effect sizes (proportion of a standard deviation by which experimental groups exceeded control groups) were averaged across studies, weighting by study sample size.