Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition – CIRC (Reading)

More on this review

For more on the review of the CIRC programme, read the BEE review of primary reading.

More on CIRC

For more details of the CIRC reading programme (Literacy Wings) visit

Primary schools

Cooperative Integrated Reading Composition (CIRC) has moderate evidence of effectiveness. Across nine qualifying studies of CIRC, involving more than 5000 students, the weighted mean effect size was +0.21.

Secondary schools

Versions of CIRC called The Reading Edge and Student Team Reading are designed for secondary students. They are reviewed separately.

About CIRC

Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) is a co-operative learning programme designed to help pupils develop metacognitive strategies for comprehending narrative and expository text. pupils work in four to five member learning teams to help each other master reading content. After teacher instruction on reading comprehension strategies, pupils work with teammates on activities in which they predict what will happen in stories, write summaries, and answer questions relating to characters, settings, problems, and problem solutions. They take turns reading to each other and work together on writing, vocabulary, and fluency activities.

CIRC, under the name Literacy Wings, is used as the upper-primary reading component of the Success for All comprehensive reform model. However, the studies evaluated in this review consider CIRC as a stand-alone model.

For information about adaptions of CIRC for pupils with English as an Additional Language, see the BEE review of Reading programmes for students with English as an additional language.